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4. Pronouns

Dutch has a number of different elements that are classified as pronouns (the following list is taken from ANS - Algemene Nederlandse Spraakkunst 'Normal/Ordinary Dutch Speech'):

This is a large and rather heterogeneous group that is, in our opinion insufficient, in one respect: determiners and numerals would fit into this group. We decided to include these elements in this category.





41000 PRON (INFL) Inflection
This attribute indicates the presence of an audible morpheme for categories like: person, number, gender, case, mode, definiteness etc. For example the –e suffix attached to possessive pronouns. Differences between hen vs. hun (‘them.ACC’ vs. ‘them.DAT’) or hem vs. hen (‘he.ACC’ vs. ‘them.ACC’) are not marked (tagged) through this attribute. The following rule applies: inflection is only marked if the word can also occur without the inflectional morpheme. The following values give information regarding the nature of the inflection:
41100 PRON (INFL) -(e)n
41200 PRON (INFL) -(e)t
41300 PRON (INFL) -e
41400 PRON (INFL) -(e)s
41500 PRON (INFL) -st
41600 PRON (INFL) OT Other inflectional morpheme



42000 PRON POS
42100 PRON POS PRE-N Prenominal
Determiners are always prenominal. Interrogative pronouns, relative pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, possessive pronouns and quantifiers can be prenominal.
E.g which N, that N, my N, all/three/some N.
42110 PRON POS PRE-N (ELL) Prenominal with ellipsis
We speak of ellipsis if the noun can be added (but is not), in constructions like ik heb deze boeken gekocht, en hij die, 'I bought these books, [lit.:] and he those'. There is no ellipsis in constructions like the following: de mijne (*boeken) liggen nog op mijn kamer, '[lit.:] The mine lay still at my room'. Another example of ellipsis: Ik heb die rode gekocht, '[lit.:]I have those red bought'.
42200 PRON POS N Nominal
A pronoun is used nominally, if it is the head of an NP, and if there are (or can be) other elements inside the same NP. If this last part of the definition is not the case, we call the position free.
F.e. dit alles, 'this all', dit allemaal, 'that all', de mijne, 'the mine'.
42300 PRON POS POST-N Postnominal
F.e. Zij allen/beiden' hebben het geweigerd, [lit.:] they all/both have it refused'.
42400 PRON POS FREE Free
A pronoun is free if it forms an NP on its own. Personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, reciprocal pronouns and R-pronouns are always free. Interrogative pronouns, relative pronouns, possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and quantifiers can be free (who, what, this, that, all, nothing, nobody). Pronouns that are marked for genitive case (f.e. wiens 'whose') are free.
42410 PRON POS FREE (PRED) Predicative pronouns
Predicative pronouns are found in constructions of the type Die fiets is mijns, 'that bicycle is mine.GEN', Jan is daar, 'John is there'.



Just like with nouns, pronouns are labelled with an attribute for case if the case is morphologically visible.
43000 PRON (CASE)
43100 PRON (CASE)(NOM) Nominative
This is normally the pronoun that is used as the subject and that agrees with the finite verb in person and number.
43200 PRON (CASE)(OBL) Oblique
This means: not nominative or genitive. This valuecan be further specified as accusative or dative. If it is not entirely clear whether the pronoun is in accusative or dative case, the value oblique is sufficient, and no further specification is given.
43210 PRON (CASE)(OBL)(ACC) Accusative
43220 PRON (CASE)(OBL)(DAT) Dative
43300 PRON (CASE)(OBL)(GEN) Genitive


Person and number

44000 PRON (FEAT)
44100 PRON (FEAT) 1.S First person singular
44200 PRON (FEAT) 2.S Second person singular
44300 PRON (FEAT) 2.S-p Second person singular, polite form
44400 PRON (FEAT) 3.S Third person singular
44500 PRON (FEAT) 1.PL First person plural
44600 PRON (FEAT) 2.PL Second person plural
44700 PRON (FEAT) 2.PL-p Second person plural, polite form
44800 PRON (FEAT) 3.PL Third person plural



45000 PRON (GEND)
45100 PRON (GEND) Z Non-neuter
45110 PRON (GEND) Z (M) Masculine. This specification is only added in clear cases.
45120 PRON (GEND) Z (F) Feminine. This specification is only added in clear cases.
45200 PRON (GEND) N Neuter



Grammatical function has, strictly speaking, no place in parts-of-speech tagging. However, it is necessary to add this attribute in order to be able to search the database, when syntactic annotation is not been done (yet).
46000 PRON (FUNCT)
46100 PRON (FUNCT) SUBJ Subject
Constituent that agrees with the finite verb.
46200 PRON (FUNCT) D-OBJ Direct object
46300 PRON (FUNCT) I-OBJ Indirect object
Indirect object, without a preposition.
46400 PRON (FUNCT) P-OBJ Prepositional object



All types of pronouns are tagged under this attribute. For most of them we follow ANS (except for determiner, R-pronoun and quantifier, which are not classified as pronouns in ANS).
4.8.1 Personal
48100 PRON TYPE PERS Personal pronouns Subject doubling
48110 PRON TYPE PERS (DOUBL) Personal pronoun in a subject doubling construction.
48111 PRON TYPE PERS (DOUBL) 1-STRONG Linearly first person pronoun in a doubling construction, if it is strong.
F.e. Zij'' heeft ze me niet gebeld, 'She.STRONG has she.WEAK me not called'.
48112 PRON TYPE PERS (DOUBL) 1-WEAK Linearly first person pronoun in a doubling construction, if it is weak.
F.e. Ze'' heeft zij me niet gebeld, 'She.WEAK has she.STRONG me not called'.
48113 PRON TYPE PERS (DOUBL) 2-STRONG Linearly second person pronoun in a doubling construction, if it is strong.
F.e. Ze heeft zij me niet gebeld, 'She.WEAK has she.STRONG me not called'.
48114 PRON TYPE PERS (DOUBL) 2-WEAK Linearly second person pronoun in a subject doubling construction, if it is weak.
F.e. Zij heeft ze me niet gebeld, 'She.STRONG has she.WEAK me not called'.
48115 PRON TYPE PERS (DOUBL) 3-STRONG Linearly third person pronoun in a subject doubling (=tripling) construction, if it is strong.
F.e. Marie heeft ze zij me niet gebeld, 'Marie has she.WEAK she.STRONG me not called'.
48116 PRON TYPE PERS (DOUBL) 3-WEAK Linearly third person pronoun in a subject doubling (=tripling) construction, if it is weak.
F.e. Marie heeft zij ''ze<.u> ''me niet gebeld, 'Marie has she.STRONG she.WEAK me not called'.'' Strong and weak
(non doubling)
48120 PRON TYPE PERSSTATUS This tag distinguishes between strong and weak pronouns in a non-doubling construction. It is assigned only if the distinction is clear. When in doubt, don't assign this tag.
48121 PRON TYPE PERSSTATUS STRONG Strong pronoun, no doubling
48122 PRON TYPE PERSSTATUS WEAK Weak pronoun, no doubling Expletive

This tag is assigned to pronouns that function as expletive subject
E.g. Het'' is jammer dat Piet gaat, 'It is a shame that Pete leaves'.
Er'' loopt een poes in de tuin, '[lit.:]There walks a cat in the garden'.

48131 PRON TYPE PERSEXPL STRONG This specification is only assigned to strong pronouns that function as expletives.
E.g. Dat'' schijnt dat Piet komt, '[lit.:] That (it.STRONG) seems that Piet comes'. Daar'' was eens een prinses die trouwen wilde , '[lit.:] There was once a princess that marry wanted' ('Once upon a time there was a princess that wanted to get married').'
4.8.2 Reflexive and reciprocal
48210 PRON TYPE REFL Reflexive pronoun
E.g. Jan kent zichzelf, '[lit.:] John knows REFL/himself'.
48211 PRON TYPE REFL SIMPL Reflexive pronoun consisting of one morpheme.
E.g. Jan wast zich, 'John washes REFL'.
48212 PRON TYPE REFL COMPL Reflexive pronoun consisting of two morphemes.
E.g.Jan wast ''zichzelf, 'John washes REFL', Piet schaamt z'n eigen, '[lit.:]Pete shames HIS OWN'.
4.8.3 Possessive
48300 PRON TYPE POSS Possessive pronoun
48310 PRON TYPE POSS STRONG Strong possessive pronoun
E.g. Marie heeft haar huis verkocht, 'Marie sold her house'.
48320 PRON TYPE POSS WEAK Weak possessive pronoun
E.g. Marie heeft d'r huis verkocht , 'Marie sold her house'.
4.8.4 Demonstrative
48400 PRON TYPE DEM Demonstrative pronoun
48410 PRON TYPE DEM DEF Definite demonstrative pronoun.
E.g. die'' fiets, 'that bicycle'.
48420 PRON TYPE DEM INDEF Indefinite demonstrative pronoun
E.g. zulke'' boeken, 'such books', zo'n ''brug, 'such-a bridge'.
4.8.5 Interrogative
48500 PRON TYPE WH Interrogative pronoun
E.g. who, what, which.
4.8.6 Relative
48600 PRON TYPE REL Relative pronoun
48610 PRON TYPE REL W Relative pronoun starting with a /w/
E.g. Alles wat Jan weet, '[lit.:] Everything what John knows', Het meisje met wie hij uitging, '[lit.:] The girl with who he dated', De bal waarmee zij speelden , '[lit.:] The ball where-with they played'.
48620 PRON TYPE REL D Relative pronoun starting with a /d/
E.g. Alles dat Jan weet, '[lit.:] Everything that John knows', Hij is iemand die graag praat, '[lit.:] He is someone that gladly talks'.
4.8.7 R-pronouns
48700 PRON TYPE R-PRON This tag is assigned to er 'there', daar 'there', overal 'everywhere', ergens 'somewhere', nergens 'nowhere', hier 'here', waar 'where', whenever they are used non-adverbially.
E.g. Hij denkt nergens meer aan, 'He thinks of nothing anymore'.
48710 PRON TYPE R-PRON STRONG Strong R-pronoun
E.g. Kijk, daar loopt een adelaar, 'Look, there walks an eagle'.
48720 PRON TYPE R-PRON WEAK Weak R-pronoun
E.g. D'r'' staat een paard in de gang, '[lit.:]There.WEAK stands a horse in the hallway'.
4.8.8 Quantifiers
48800 PRON TYPE QUANT This category resembles the indefinite pronouns used in ANS, but is enlarged with numberals.
48810 PRON TYPE QUANT NUM Numerals, both ordinals and cardinals. Veel 'many' and weinig 'less' do not belong to this class, but are adjectives.
48820 PRON TYPE QUANT UNIV Universal quantifiers: each, every, all, altogether, everything, everybody, both.
48830 PRON TYPE QUANT EXIS Existential quantifiers: any, some.
48840 PRON TYPE QUANT NEG Negative quantifiers: nobody, nothing, no.
4.8.9 Determiners
48910 PRON TYPE ART DEF Definite articles: de 'the.MASC/FEM', het, 'the.NEUT'.
48920 PRON TYPE ART IND Indefinite articles: een 'a'.
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