Verb

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3. Verb

The problem of proclisis and enclisis arises when dealing with the finite verb: weak personal pronouns and/or the negative particle, that form one word or a unit with the finite verb. In such cases, it is not always easy to distinguish between verb and pronoun (f.e. ganeme, normal: gaan we, 'go we', issem, normal: is hij, 'is-he', zakzekik, normal: zal ik ze, 'will-I-them-I-I', etc.). Therefore, we have two different tiers in the transcription: the first one (informant tier or assistent interviewer tier) contains the unanalyzed cluster, while in the second tier (the cluster tier) the cluster is divided into separate parts (f.e. is em, za k ze kik). Part of speech tagging is done with both tiers/at both levels. In the informant or assistant interviewer tier, the word gets tagged as V-clitic-cluster (33000). In the cluster tier the verb gets the relevant tag, and of course the same holds for the other element of the cluster. THe following tags can either be assigned to verbs in the informant tier (if the finite verb is not part of a cluster) or in the cluster tier (when it is part of a cluster).

30000

V

Verb

3.1

Inflection

31000 V (INFL) Inflection
The occurrence of this attribute indicates the presence of an audible affix. The following rule applies: inflection is only marked if the word can also occur without the inflectional morpheme. The attribute has the following values:
31100 V (INFL) -(e)n
31200 V (INFL) -(e)t
31300 V (INFL) -e
31400 V (INFL) -(e)s
31500 V (INFL) -st
31600 V (INFL) OT Other inflectional morpheme

3.2

Position

32000 V POS Position
3.2.1 Regular order
32100 V POS REG Regular order
Position of the finite verb (finite form), directly following the subject (and followed by the rest of the sentence). Also in case of subject doubling, where the subject precedes and follows the finite verb, the finite verb gets this value.
3.2.2 Inverted order
32200 V POS INV Inverted order
Position of the finite verb (finite form), directly followed by the subject. All verb initial sentences (e.g. yes/no questions, imperatives) and non-subject-initial matrix sentences will get this value.
3.2.3 Position right periphery
32300 V POS END End position
The verb is not in first and second position, but is situated at the end of the sentence. Participles and infinitives are always V-final (unless they are free or used adnominally, see below). If the more than one verb is in the final position of the sentence, we call it a verb cluster, e.g. dat Jan ze wel op zou willen eten, '[lit.:] that John them AFF PRT would want eat'. The hierarchical (not the linear) order/position of each verb is given, by means of the specifications mentioned below. A verb cluster can be ‘interrupted’ by DP’s, prepositions, adverbs, elements like te (=infinitive indicator: hij zit te studeren, ‘[lit:] he sits to study’, meaning: he is studying). etc. but not by complementizers. The underlined parts form a verb cluster in the following sentence: dat Jan probeert de krant ''te lezen, ‘[lit:] that John tries the paper to read’, but the underlined parts do not form a verb cluster in this sentence: dat Jan probeert om de krant ''te lezen, ‘[lit:] that John tries in order the paper to read’. This last sentence contains a complementizer, marking a new subordinate clause domain, and thus (potentially) a new verb cluster domain.
32310 V POS END (1)

Hierarchically highest verb
The finite verb always gets this specifications.
F.e. Ik denk dat Jan de wagen gemaakt zou kunnen hebben, '[lit.:] I think that John the car fixed could can have'.

32320 V POS END (2) Hierarchically second highest verb
This is always a non-finite verb, even if there is a finite verb in first or second position (in the main clause), counting in the cluster starts (at the end) with this specification.
F.e.:Ik denk dat Jan de wagen gemaakt zou kunnen hebben, ‘[lit:] I think that John the car fixed could can have’.
32330 V POS END (3) Hierarchically third highest verb
F.e. Ik denk dat Jan de wagen gemaakt zou kunnen hebben, '[lit.:] I think that John the car fixed could can have'.
32340 V POS END (4) Hierarchically lowest verb
F.e. Ik denk dat Jan de wagen gemaakt zou kunnen hebben, '[lit.:] I think that John the car fixed could can have'.
3.2.4 Other positions
32400 V POS OT Other verbal positions
32410 V POS OT PRE-N Prenominal
F.e. een gedurfd voorstel, 'a daring preposition'.
32420 V POS OT N Nominal
F.e. de ''vrijgestelden, 'the freed/released/liberated (people)', het zingen van de nachtegaal, 'the singing of the nightingale'.
32430 V POS OT POST-N Postnominal
F.e. een tas gemaakt van leer, 'a bag made of leather'.

3.3

Verb-clitic-cluster

33000 V CL-CL This attribute is assigned at the informant or assistant interviewer tier to verbs that form a cluster with weak pronouns (see introduction of this paragraph).

3.4

Features

34000 V FEAT
3.4.1 Finite
34100 V FEAT FIN Finite verb (form)
3.4.1.1 Present tense, indicative
34110 V FEAT FIN PT Present tense
34111 V FEAT FIN PT 1.S Present tense, first person singular
34112 V FEAT FIN PT 2.S Present tense, second person singular
34113 V FEAT FIN PT 2.S-P Present tense, second person singular, polite form
34114 V FEAT FIN PT 3.S Present tense, third person singular
34115 V FEAT FIN PT 1.PL Present tense, first person plural
34116 V FEAT FIN PT 2.PL Present tense, second person plural
34117 V FEAT FIN PT 2.PL-P Present tense, second person plural, polite form
34118 V FEAT FIN PT 3.PL Present tense, third person plural
3.4.1.2 Present tense, conjunctive
34120 V FEAT FIN PT.CONJ Present tense, conjunctive
34121 V FEAT FIN PT.CONJ 1.S Present tense, conjunctive, first person singular
34122 V FEAT FIN PT.CONJ 2.S etc.
34123 V FEAT FIN PT.CONJ 2.S-P
34124 V FEAT FIN PT.CONJ 3.S
34125 V FEAT FIN PT.CONJ 1.PL
34126 V FEAT FIN PT.CONJ 2.PL
34127 V FEAT FIN PT.CONJ 2.PL-P
34128 V FEAT FIN PT.CONJ 3.PL
3.4.1.3 Imperative
34130 V FEAT FIN TT.IMP Finite imperative
34131 V FEAT FIN TT.IMP S Finite imperative, singular
34132 V FEAT FIN TT.IMP PL Finite imperative, plural
3.4.1.4 Past tense indicative
34140 V FEAT FIN PastT Past tense
34141 V FEAT FIN PastT 1.S Past tense, first person singular
34142 V FEAT FIN PastT 2.S etc.
34143 V FEAT FIN PastT 2.S-P
34144 V FEAT FIN PastT 3.S
34145 V FEAT FIN PastT 1.PL
34146 V FEAT FIN PastT 2.PL
34147 V FEAT FIN PastT 2.PL-P
34148 V FEAT FIN PastT 3.PL
3.4.1.5 Past tense conjunctive
34150 V FEAT FIN PAST.CONJ Conjunctive, past tense
34151 V FEAT FIN PAST.CONJ 1.S Conjunctive, past tense, first person singular
34152 V FEAT FIN PAST.CONJ 2.S etc
34153 V FEAT FIN PAST.CONJ 2.S-p
34154 V FEAT FIN PAST.CONJ 3.S
34155 V FEAT FIN PAST.CONJ 1.Pl
34156 V FEAT FIN PAST.CONJ 2.Pl
34157 V FEAT FIN PAST.CONJ 2.Pl-p
34158 V FEAT FIN PAST.CONJ 3.Pl
3.4.1.6 Past tense imperative
34160 V FEAT FIN PAST.IMP Imperative, past tense
34161 V FEAT FIN PAST.IMP S Imperative, past tense singular
34162 V FEAT FIN PAST.IMP PL Imperative, past tense plural
3.4.2 Non-finite
34200 V FEAT INF Infinitive
34210 V FEAT INF N Infinitive, used nominally
34220 V FEAT INF FREE Free infinitive
3.4.3 Participles
34300 V FEAT PART Participle
34310 V FEAT PART PAST Past participle
34311 V FEAT PART PAST +Prefix Past participle with prefix ge- or e-
34312 V FEAT PART PAST -Prefix Past participle without a prefix
34320 V FEAT PART PRES Present participle

3.5

Type

35000 V TYPE
3.5.1 Auxiliary
35100 V TYPE AUX Auxiliary verb
35110 V TYPE AUX PERF Perfective auxiliary
35120 V TYPE AUX MOD

Modal auxiliary
E.g. can, must, want, need, would, could

35130 V TYPE AUX ASP Aspectual auxiliary
E.g. go, come, stand, lay, sit, stay, begin
35140 V TYPE AUX PASS Passive auxiliary
E.g. worden in Er wordt gedanst, '[lit:] there is/get dance.part'. If the sentence has a perfective meaning at the same time, then assign tag 35110 (f.e. Er is gedanst, 'there has been dancing going on'/'[lit:]there is danced').
3.5.2 Matrix
35200 V TYPE HEAD Matrix verb
3.5.2.1 Inherent reflexive
35210 V TYPE HEAD REFL Inherent reflexive matrix verb
3.5.2.2 Transitive verb
35220 V TYPE HEAD TRANS Transitive matrix verb
3.5.2.3 Intransitive verb
35230 V TYPE HEAD INTR Intransitive matrix verb
35231 V TYPE HEAD INTR UNACC Unaccusative verb
These verbs use zijn 'to be' in perfective in Dutch, can not be used in an impersonal passive construction, and can modify a noun that corresponds to the subject, if they are used as prenominal participles (f.e. de gestorven man, '[lit:] the died.part man').
F.e. sterven, 'to die', vallen, 'to fall'.
35232 V TYPE HEAD INTR UNERG Unergative verb
These verbs use hebben 'to have' in perfective in Dutch, they can be used in an impersonal passive construction, but can not modify a noun that corresponds to the subject, as a prenominal participle.
F.e. werken, 'to work', slapen, 'to sleep'.
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