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5. Adpositions: prepositions and postpositions

Adpositions normally take a complement. This can be a DP, but also a PP, an adverb, an adjective, a numeral or a verbal projection (V, VP, IP, CP). In the latter case, adpositions are treated as complementizers, which results in a systematic ambiguity for words like tot 'until', sedert, sinds 'since', voor 'before', na 'after', naar 'to', zonder 'without', met 'with', door 'through', om 'because of/in order to'. Just like CGN, the SAND does not follow this strategy, and classifies these words as adpositions. THis also holds for te, that introduces an infinitive, and aan '[lit.:] on' in constructions like aan het vissen 'fishing, busy fishing', op 'on' in constructions like op springen staan '[lit.:] on jump standing, be about to explode', and uit in uit vissen gaan 'go out fishing'.






We talk about inflection if there is an audible morpheme attached to P, for categories like: person, number, gender, case, mode, definiteness etc. The following rule applies: inflection is only marked if the word can also occur without the inflectional morpheme. There are 6 specifications:
51000 P (INFL)
51100 P (INFL) -(e)n
51200 P (INFL) -(e)t
51300 P (INFL) -e
51400 P (INFL) -(e)s
51500 P (INFL) -st
51600 P (INFL) OT Other inflectional morpheme



52000 P POS
52100 P POS PREP Prepositional, e.g. op'' de brug, 'on the bridge'.
52110 P POS PREP FUSION Prepositional and fused with (a part of) its complement.
E.g. ter'' plaatse, 'on.the spot', ten'' geleide '[lit.:] at.the guard, preface'.
52200 P POS POST Postnominal, e.g. onder de brug door, '[lit.:] under the bridge through'. Adpositions accompanied by a R-pronoun are postpositional, even if the R-pronoun does not directly precede or follow the preposition. E.g. dat ik er gisteren met Jan over, '[lit.:] that I there yesterday with John about spoken have (that I've talked to John about it yesterday)'.
52300 P POS FREE Adpositions can also occur without a complement. This is the case for adverbially or predicatively used prepositions. E.g. het bier is op, '[lit.:] the beer is on (we ran out of beer)', het licht is aan, '[lit.:] the light is on'. Separable prefixes of a verb also count as predicatively used prepositions, whether they are separated from the verb or not. (E.g. Hij belt haar op, '[lit.:] he calls her up (he calls her)', ... dat hij haar opbelt, '[lit.:] that he her up-calls').
52320 P POS FREE ADV Adverbially used adpositions.
E.g. Dat hij liever binnen werkt, 'that he rather works inside/indoors'.
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