Adpositions

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5. Adpositions: prepositions and postpositions

Adpositions normally take a complement. This can be a DP, but also a PP, an adverb, an adjective, a numeral or a verbal projection (V, VP, IP, CP). In the latter case, adpositions are treated as complementizers, which results in a systematic ambiguity for words like tot 'until', sedert, sinds 'since', voor 'before', na 'after', naar 'to', zonder 'without', met 'with', door 'through', om 'because of/in order to'. Just like CGN, the SAND does not follow this strategy, and classifies these words as adpositions. THis also holds for te, that introduces an infinitive, and aan '[lit.:] on' in constructions like aan het vissen 'fishing, busy fishing', op 'on' in constructions like op springen staan '[lit.:] on jump standing, be about to explode', and uit in uit vissen gaan 'go out fishing'.

50000

P

Adpositions

5.1

Inflection

We talk about inflection if there is an audible morpheme attached to P, for categories like: person, number, gender, case, mode, definiteness etc. The following rule applies: inflection is only marked if the word can also occur without the inflectional morpheme. There are 6 specifications:
51000 P (INFL)
51100 P (INFL) -(e)n
51200 P (INFL) -(e)t
51300 P (INFL) -e
51400 P (INFL) -(e)s
51500 P (INFL) -st
51600 P (INFL) OT Other inflectional morpheme

5.2

Position

52000 P POS
52100 P POS PREP Prepositional, e.g. op'' de brug, 'on the bridge'.
52110 P POS PREP FUSION Prepositional and fused with (a part of) its complement.
E.g. ter'' plaatse, 'on.the spot', ten'' geleide '[lit.:] at.the guard, preface'.
52200 P POS POST Postnominal, e.g. onder de brug door, '[lit.:] under the bridge through'. Adpositions accompanied by a R-pronoun are postpositional, even if the R-pronoun does not directly precede or follow the preposition. E.g. dat ik er gisteren met Jan over, '[lit.:] that I there yesterday with John about spoken have (that I've talked to John about it yesterday)'.
52300 P POS FREE Adpositions can also occur without a complement. This is the case for adverbially or predicatively used prepositions. E.g. het bier is op, '[lit.:] the beer is on (we ran out of beer)', het licht is aan, '[lit.:] the light is on'. Separable prefixes of a verb also count as predicatively used prepositions, whether they are separated from the verb or not. (E.g. Hij belt haar op, '[lit.:] he calls her up (he calls her)', ... dat hij haar opbelt, '[lit.:] that he her up-calls').
52320 P POS FREE ADV Adverbially used adpositions.
E.g. Dat hij liever binnen werkt, 'that he rather works inside/indoors'.
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